Do you know?

Do you know? (Submitted by Karan Menon)

World (Q&A) What is the highest point in the Canadian Rockies, located in the province of British Columbia? (Mount Robson) The Black Drin River is the main outflow of which lake on the border of Macedonia and Albania? (Lake Otranto) FYROM is an abbreviation of the nation of Macedonia. What is the highest point of this country? (Mount Korab, also the highest point of Albania) Which city in the Pelagonia Valley, is the 2nd largest city in Macedonia? (Bitola) Which mountain, part of the Fagaras Mountains, a part of a Carpathian Mountains is the highest point in Romania? (Moldoveanu Peak) The Lofoten Archipelago is located in which country? (Norway) The Rhodope Mountains are located in Greece and which other country? (Bulgaria) Which country has the longest coastline along the Adriatic Sea? (Croatia) What state has the largest port by volume in the United States? (Louisiana) Maja Jezerce, located in Albania, is the highest point in which range in Southern Europe located in Albania, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Kosovo, Slovenia? (Dinaric Alps) What is the highest mountain in both Slovenia and the Julian Alps? (Triglav) Name the 2 types of waves that are used to triangulate the epicenter in a earthquake. (P(Primary) Waves and S(Secondary) Waves) Dunhuang is a city home to the Mogao Caves, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This city is located in which province, located between the Tibetan and Loess Plateaus in which Chinese province whose capital is Lanzhou? (Gansu) Which strait separates Copenhagen and the island of Jutland from Malmo and the Scania Province of Sweden? (Oresund) Which strait separates the northern part of the Jutland Peninsula from the southeastern part of Norway? (Skagerrak) What are the 2 main types of glaciers? (Alpine and Continental) The ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in which country? (Bangladesh; In Rajshahi Division) The headquarters of ASEAN(Association of Southeast Asian Nations) is located in which capital city? (Jakarta) Naples is the capital of which Italian region, the 2nd most populous in the country, which is home to the Amalfi Coast? (Campania) The Amalfi Coast is located on the southern side of which peninsula, that separates the Gulf of Naples to the north from the Gulf of Salerno to the south? (Sorrentine Peninsula, also known as Sorrento) Largest Alkaline lake in the world is Lake Turkana. What is its other name? (previously known as Lake Rudolf, it is also known as Jade Sea. It is also the world's largest permanent desert lake) Clarksville, located in Montgomery County, is the 5th largest city in which State? (Tennessee) Sierra Nevada National Park is located in which country? (Spain) Which peak in the Sierra Nevada National Park is the highest point in mainland Spain? (Mulhacen) The Jurrasic Coast is UNESCO World Heritage Site in which country? (United Kingdom, England) Which island in the Baltic Sea on the Pomeranian Coast in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania is the largest island in Germany? (Rugen) The Wadi Rum is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in which country? (Jordan, it is in the Aqaba Governorate) The Buccaneer Archipelago is off the coast of which Australian state? (Western Australia) Which island in the Haddhunmathi Atoll(Laamu), is the largest island in the Maldives? (Gan) What is the Mongolian term for a severely harsh winter in which large numbers of livestock die, primarily due to starvation as well as the cold weather? (Zud)

Why Geography Bee?

Why Geography Bee?

Preparing for this competition is a fun way of learning about places and people, all across the world! It increases geographic knowledge and helps children in becoming champions. It instills in them the universal principles of education – the desire to learn, the ability to focus, the discipline to stay on course, the importance of working hard, an opportunity to understand novel concepts and to make a sense of every day, world events .
Preparing for Geography Bee leads to learning important life lessons that are absolute pre-requisites for higher achievement.

Why Geography?

Why Geography?

In an increasingly interconnected, interdependent and compressed world, knowing about the world and the happenings around will enable us to understand how remote events have the ability to impact people's lives all around the world. Geography connects physical systems, cultural characteristics, evolution and modification of environments and availability and distribution of resources. Being Geographically literate and by having a mental map of the world, children will have a decent chance to become global citizens and consequently, primed to be active players on the world stage. They are also more likely to appreciate Mother Earth as the homeland of humankind, for making wise management decisions about how the planet's resources should be conserved and used in the next century.

Sunday, March 3, 2013

Assignment - Week 5 - Volcanos of the World - 3rd to 9th March, 2013

Learn 10 new facts about this topic and post...


  1. 3/3/2013


    1. Mount Merapi, Gunung Merapi, is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It is located approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of Yogyakarta city, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with villages as high as 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) above sea level.

    2. Mount Unzen is an active volcanic group of several overlapping strato volcanoes, near the city of Shimabara, Nagasaki Prefecture, on the island of Kyūshū, Japan’s southernmost main island. In 1792, the collapse of one of its several lava domes triggered a mega tsunami that killed about 15,000 people in Japan’s worst-ever volcanic-related disaster. The volcano was most recently active from 1990 to 1995, and a large eruption in 1991 generated a pyroclastic flow that killed 43 people, including three volcanologists.

    3. Mount Pelée is an active volcano at the northern end of the island and French overseas department of Martinique in the Lesser Antilles island arc of the Caribbean. Its volcanic cone is composed of layers of volcanic ash and hardened lava. The stratovolcano is famous for its eruption in 1902 and the destruction that resulted, dubbed the worst volcanic disaster of the 20th century. The eruption killed about 30,000 people. Most deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows and occurred in the city of Saint-Pierre, which was, at that time, the largest city on the island.

    4. Galeras (Urcunina among the 16th-century indigenous people) is an Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the departmental capital Pasto. Its summit rises 4,276 metres (14,029 ft) above sea level. It has erupted frequently since the Spanish conquest, with its first historical eruption being recorded on December 7, 1580. A 1993 eruption killed nine people, including six scientists who had descended into the volcano’s crater to sample gases. It is currently the most active volcano in Colombia.

    5. Mount Nyiragongo is a stratovolcano in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Albertine Rift. It is located inside Virunga National Park, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 20 km north of the town of Goma and Lake Kivu and just west of the border with Rwanda.

    6. Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean, and the largest on Earth in terms of volume and area covered. It is an active shield volcano, with a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km3), although its peak is about 120 feet (37 m) lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea.

    7. Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. It is the tallest active volcano in Europe, currently standing 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high, though this varies with summit eruptions; the mountain is 21 m (69 ft) higher than it was in 1981.

    8. Llaima is the largest and most active volcano in Chile at 3,125 m. Llaima stands for “Bloody Veins” (in mapuche, Indian). It resembles the bloody veins when you see streams of glowing lava flowing from the peak.

    9. Redoubt is an active and recently eruptive stratovolcano in the U.S. state of Alaska. It stands at 2,700 m. It has reached its strongest activity in the 20th century in 1902, 1966 and 1989. During the last eruption in 2009, 6 explosions were recorded which sent an ash plume more than 9 miles into the air. This was the biggest volcanic emissions in nearly 20 years.

    10. Ruapehu is an active stratovolcano in New Zealand, standing at 2,797 m. It contains three summits with an active crater located between them. It is considered to be one of the world’s most active volcanoes and the largest active volcano in New Zealand. Ruapehu got its name from a Maori world which means “exploding abyss.” The last eruption is dated to the 25th of September in 2007 andit happened without warning.

  2. 1. The only known active volcano in Grenada is Kick 'Em Jenny, just north, between Grenada and Carriacou. Kick 'Em Jenny is a seamount volcano, and is 5 miles west of Ronde Island. The first recorded eruption was in 1939, when it was discovered. Before it was under the name of a small island called Diamond Rock. The name itself is a reference to the waters being extremely rough.

    2. Parinacota is a potentially active volcano on the border between Bolivia and Chile. It is part of the Nevados de Pachayata volcanic group. The other major tall feature of the group is the mountain of Pomerape. The volcano and Pomerape straddle the border between Lauca National Park of Chile, and the Sajama National Park of Bolivia. Sajama, on the Bolivian side, is the closest tour guide site, at 27 kilometers east. It is 20,817 feet high.

    3. The Irazu Volcano is an active volcano of Costa Rica, in the Cordillera Central, close to Cartago. It is the tallest volcano of Costa Rico, though Cerro Chirripo is the tallest mountain. From the top it is possible for one to see both the Atlantic and Pacific, though such clear days, are very rare indeed, and it is typical for the volcano's summit to be covered in ash.

    4. Izalco, is a stratovolcano on the side of the Santa Ana Volcano, which is located in western El Salvador. It is on the southern flank of the Santa Ana volcano, and last erupted in 1966. The land is used for production of coffee, cacao, and sugarcane. The Santa Ana Volcano or Ilamapetec is a volcano in the Santa Ana Department of El Salvador. It formed the Acajutla Peninsula. It last erupted in 2005.

    5. Eyjafjallajokull is the volcano that created the ash cloud, disrupting many flights, in April 2010. It is a stratovolcano, with its highest point being 5417 feet. It is fed by a magma chamber which in turn derives from the tectonic divergence of the Mid Atlantic Ridge. It is part of a chain of volcanoes stretching across Iceland. Its nearest active neighbors are Katla, to the northeast and Eldfell, in the island of Heimaey, to the southwest. Katla is under the Myrdalsjokull ice cap.

    6. Mount Tambora is an active stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, in Sumbawa, Indonesia. It is flanked to both the north and south, by oceanic crust, and Tambora was formed in the active subduction zone beneath it. This raised Mount Tambora as high as 14,100. It is rated a 7 on the volcanic explosivity index.

    7. Mount Popa is a volcano of 4981 feet and is located in the center of Burma 30 miles SW of Bagan. It can be seen from 40 miles away. Mount Popa is known for the Popa Taungkalat Shrine. It is regarded as an oasis in the dry zone of Myanmar, and plants trees and shrubs grow.

    8. Tupungato, one of the higher mountains of South America, is a massive stratovolcano dating to Pleistocene times. It lies on the border, between the Chilean metropolitan region, and the province of Mendoza, Argentina, and is near a major international highway, about 50 miles east of Chile. It is located about 62 miles south of Mount Aconcagua. Immediately to its south lies the active Tupungatito Volcano, which last erupted in 1987. The mountain gives its name to the Tupungato Department, and an important Argentine wine producing region. Star Dust, an aircraft, crashed into it in 1947.

    9. Mayon Volcano is an active stratovolcano in the island of Luzon, in the province of Albay, in the Bicol Region/Peninsula, Philippines. It is 6 miles from the Gulf of Albay and its longest uninterrupted explosion happened in 1897, when 400 people died. In 1984, 73,000 people were evacuated an there were no casualties, but 77 people died in 1993.

    10. The La Soufriere (the Sulferer), or the Soufriere Saint Vincent is an active volcano in Saint Vincent, in the Windward islands. It was the tallest mountain in the country until 1979, when the top blew off. It is 4049 feet.

  3. Volcanos around the world

    1. Ecuador is home to Pichincha, Riminahui, Cotopaxi and Chimborazo volcanoes, and of these, Cotopaxi is perhaps the most emblematic and the most frequently climbed, though is does require an overnight at a refuge. At 19,347 feet, it is the second highest volcano in Ecuador (the first is Chimborazo).
    2. The Tequila Volcano, or Volcán de Tequila is a volcano located near Tequila, Jalisco, in Mexico. This volcano is a stratovolcano or composite volcano. The Tequila Volcano last erupted 200,000 years ago. That eruption covered the area in rich volcanic soil, making the area ideal for the growth of blue agave, the most popular crop of the region. The Tequila Volcano is unusual because it has a well-preserved central spine of material, which solidified in the centre, or central vent, of the volcano.
    3. Pacaya is an active complex volcano in Guatemala, which first erupted approximately 23,000 years ago and has erupted at least 23 times since the Spanish invasion of Guatemala. Pacaya rises to an elevation of 2,552 metres (8,373 ft).[1] After being dormant for a century, it erupted violently in 1965 and has been erupting continuously since then.
    4. Villarrica is one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rising above the lake and town of the same name. The volcano is also known as Rucapillán, a Mapuche word meaning "House of the Pillán". It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain along the Gastre Fault.
    5. El Misti is a stratovolcano located in southern Peru near the city of Arequipa. El Misti has three concentric craters. In the inner crater fumarole activity can be seen. Near the inner crater six Inca mummies and rare Inca artifacts were found in 1998 during a month-long excavation directed by the archaeologists Johan Reinhard and Jose Antonio Chavez. These findings are currently stored at the Museo de Santuarios Andinos in Arequipa.
    6. Arenal Volcano, in Spanish Volcán Arenal, is an active andesitic stratovolcano in north-western Costa Rica around 90 km northwest of San José. Arenal Volcano area is an important watershed for the Arenal Lake Reservoir. The reservoir's water is used for hydroelectric power. It is also connected to the national system.
    7. Dominica's Boiling Lake is situated in the Morne Trois Pitons National Park - Dominica's World Heritage site. It is a flooded fumarole 6.5 miles (10.5 km) east of Roseau, Dominica. It is filled with bubbling greyish-blue water that is usually enveloped in a cloud of vapour.
    8. Mount St. Helens is 45 miles (72 km) west of Mount Adams, in the western part of the Cascade Range. These "sister and brother" volcanic mountains are approximately 50 miles (80 km) from Mount Rainier, the highest of Cascade volcanoes. Mount Hood, the nearest major volcanic peak in Oregon, is 60 miles (100 km) southeast of Mount St. Helens.
    9. Nevado Del Huila is the highest volcano in Colombia located in Huila Department, Tolima and Cauca Departments. After being dormant for more than 500 years, the volcano showed heavy signs of activity in 2007 and 2008. As of February 20, 2007, there were more than 7000 "minor" seismic events, and a high state of alert was in place for the departments of Cauca, Huila, Caldas and Valle del Cauca.
    10. Cayambe is the name of a volcano located in the Cordillera Oriental, a branch of the Ecuadorian Andes. It is located in Pichincha province some 70 km (43 mi) northeast of Quito. It is the third highest mountain in Ecuador. It has a permanent snow cap, is a Holocene compound volcano which has not erupted in historical times. At 4,690 m (15,387 ft) on its south slope is the highest point in the world crossed by the Equator and the only point on the Equator with snow cover. The volcano is in the Cayambe Coca Ecological Reserve.

  4. Volcanoes

    1. The decomposing skeleton of a right whale was found on the underwater volcano Patton Seamount.
    2. Suiyo Seamount, a seamount near Japan, was thought to be extinct until a hydrothermal event in 1991 was brought to light.
    3. The 27-million-year-old Cobb Seamount is so heavily encrusted in sea life that no bare rock surface has been found in dives.
    4. Parts of the shield volcano Fumarole Butte were once covered by Lake Bonneville.
    5. The Temagami greenstone belt in Ontario was the site of the largest deposit of nearly pure chalcopyrite ever discovered in Canada.
    6. The Makushin Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes of Alaska.
    7. The 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption in Washington was the first major volcanic eruption to occur in the U.S. since the 1915 eruption of Lassen Peak in California.
    8. The Irazú Volcano in Costa Rica erupted violently in 1963, on the day U.S. President John F. Kennedy arrived in the country for a state visit.
    9. Ferdinandea was a volcanic island near Sicily which was claimed by four countries when it appeared in 1831, but was destroyed by erosion less than a year later.
    10. The only active volcano in South Asia is on Barren Island, one of India's Andaman Islands.

    1. This comment has been removed by the author.

    2. Hello Christian,

      It is my belief that Indonesia is part of Southeast Asia, not south.

  5. 1. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes, including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. Volcanoes in Indonesia are a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

    2. The Decade Volcanoes are 16 volcanoes identified by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior as being worthy of particular study in light of their history of large, destructive eruptions and proximity to populated areas.

    3. Avachinsky is an active stratovolcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the far east of Russia. It lies within sight of the capital of Kamchatka Krai, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Together with neighboring Koryaksky volcano, it has been designated a Decade Volcano.

    4. The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7, which is estimated to have occurred in the mid second millennium BCE. The eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history. The eruption devastated the island of Thera (also called Santorini), including the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri.

    5.Santa María Volcano is a large active volcano in the Western Highlands of Guatemala, close to the city of Quetzaltenango. Its eruption in 1902 (VEI 6) was one of the four largest eruptions of the 20th century, after the 1912 Novarupta and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions.

    6. Novarupta, meaning "new eruption", is a new volcano that was created in 1912 and located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about 290 miles (470 km) southwest of Anchorage. Formed in 1912 during the largest pre-Pinatubo volcanic eruption of the 20th century.

    7. Mt Etna of Italy is thought to be the world's oldest active volcano. The first record of its eruption dates back to 1500 BC. Since then, Etna has erupted 190 times. It is one of the largest continental volcanoes and has the largest record of historic eruptions.

    8. Nevado Ojos del Salado is a massive stratovolcano in the Andes on the Argentina-Chile border and the highest volcano in the world at 6,893 metres (22,615 ft). It is also the second highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and the highest in Chile.

    9. The Volcanic Seven Summits are the highest volcanoes on each of the seven continents, just as the Seven Summits are the highest peaks on each of the seven continents. They include the following:

    Ojos del Salado(Chile/Argentina)
    Pico de Orizaba(Mexico)
    Mount Giluwe(Papua New Guinea)
    Mount Sidley(Antarctica)

    10. Mount Giluwe is the second highest mountain in Papua New Guinea at 4,367 metres (14,327 ft) (Mount Wilhelm being the highest). It is located in the Southern Highlands province and is an old shield volcano with vast alpine grasslands.

  6. March 5, 2013

    1. The Ulawun Volcano, located on the island of New Britain, is one of the most active volcanoes in Papua New Guinea, and it is one of the most dangerous. It is the highest volcano in the 1,000 km long Bismarck volcanic arc. The volcano is located southwest of the city of Rabaul, and is one of the 16 Decade Volcanoes.

    2. Nyiragongo Volcano is a very active volcano located near the town of Goma in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is one of the eight volcanoes in the Virunga Mountains. The volcano is noted for long active lava lakes which appear in the summit crater. It is located inside Virunga National Park.

    3. Mount Merapi (literally Mountain of Fire) is a conical volcano located in the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It is very close to the city of Yogyakarta, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano.

    4. The Galeras Volcano is located in southern Columbia, close to the border with Ecuador, and it is one of the most active volcanoes in Colombia. The city of Pasto with 450,000 inhabitants is located on the eastern slope of Galeras. This volcano has been active for at least a million years.

    5. Sakurajima is an active composite volcano and a former island (now connected to the mainland) of the same name in Kyushu, Japan due to the lava flows of the 1914 eruption which caused the former island to the connected with the Osumi Peninsula in Japan. It is often called the Vesuvius of the East.

    1. 6. Mount Yasur is and active volcano on Tanna Island, Vanuatu, and this volcano erupted in 2012. It is located on the coast near Sulphur Bay. It lies to the southeast of the taller Mount Tukosmera, which was active in the Pleistocene. It was created by the eastward-moving Indo-Australian Plate being subducted under the westward-moving Pacific Plate. The village of Sulphur Bay, the center of the movement, claims the volcano as part of their territory.

      7. The Galeras Volcano is and Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the department capital Pasto. It is currently the most active volcano in Columbia, and last erupted in 2012. It is located in the Andes. The volcano was called Urcunina by 16th century indigenous people.

      8. Mount Teide is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. It is the highest point in Spain and the highest point above sea level in the islands of the Atlantic. At 7,500 m (24,600 ft) from its base on the ocean floor, it is the third highest volcano in the world, after Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa in Hawaii. The volcano`s elevation makes Tenerife the tenth highest island in the world. It remains active: its most recent eruption occurred in 1909 from the El Chinyero vent on the northwestern Santiago rift.

      9. Avachinsky is an active stratovolcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula in the far east of Russia. It lies within sight of the capital of Kamchatka Krai, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Together with neighboring Koryaksky volcano, it has been designated a Decade Volcano, worthy of particular study in light of its history of explosive eruptions and proximity to populated areas.

      10. Volcan da Colima, also known as Volcan de Fuego is part of the Colima volcanic complex consisting of Volcán de Colima and Nevado de Colima. It is the younger of the two and is currently one of the most active volcanos in Mexico and in North America. Despite its name, only a fraction of the volcano's surface area is in the state of Colima; the majority of its surface area lies over the border in the neighboring state of Jalisco, toward the western end of the Eje Volcánico Transversal mountain range. It is about 485 km (301 mi) west of Mexico City and 125 km (78 mi) south of Guadalajara, Jalisco.

  7. Volcanoes of the World


    1. Mount Shishaldin, located in the Aleutian Islands, on Unimak Island, is the highest volcano/peak in the Aleutians. The volcano is one of the most symmetrical cone shaped mountains in the world.

    2. Mt. Hood is located in the Cascade Volcanic Arc of Northern Oregon, and is located on the border of Clackamas and Hood Counties. The volcano is considered the most likely to erupt in Oregon, and is potentially active.

    3. Mt. Jefferson is the second highest mountain in Oregon, and is located in the Cascade Volcanic Arc. The volcano last erupted in 950 AD, and is also one of the hardest to reach mountains of the Cascades.

    4. Trimble Knob is one of the youngest volcanoes in the East Coast, and is located in Virginia. It is essentially a remnant of a volcano that as formed over 35 million years ago, and is made up of basalt.

    5. Mount Shasta is a stratovolcano in the southern Cascades, and is the second highest mountain in the Cascades, and the fifth highest in California. Mount Shasta last erupted in 1786, and is the second most prominent peak in California.


    1. Grimsvotn, located in Iceland, has the highest eruption frequency of any volcano in Iceland, and is located on the Vatnajokull Glacier of southeastern Iceland. This volcano erupted during the eruption of Eyjafjallajokull.

    2. The Piton de la Fournaise, located on the French Indian Ocean Territory of Reunion, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, and is a shield volcano. The volcano is located in the southern portion of the island.

    3. The Baru Volcano of Panama is the highest point of Panama, and erupted last in 1550. On a clear day it is possible to see the Pacific Ocean, or Caribbean Sea from the peak of Baru.

    4. Paricutin, located in the Mexican State of Michoacan, and is said to be one of the seven natural wonders of the world. The villages of Paricutin and San Juan Parangarincutiro were engulfed by its eruption.

    5. Baekdu Mountain is the highest mountain in the Korean Peninsula, and is located on the North Korea-China border. The mountain is located in the Changbai Mountain Range, and the Baekdu Mountain Range.


  8. 1.Dormant since 1857, Mount St. Helens erupted on May 18, 1980 in one of the largest volcanic explosions in North American history.
    After a fissure appeared along the north side of the mountain, a great portion of the rock facing fell, followed by a blast of stone, ash, and poison gas from the mountain. Landslides ensued, covering local forestation and carrying debris nearly 20 mi (32 km). The disaster took 57 lives, wiped out substantial populations of elk, deer, bear, and coyote, and destroyed miles of vegetation.
    A second eruption occurred a week later, on May 25, and then again on April 11, 1981. The high summit of Mt. St. Helens was replaced by a horseshoe-shaped crater 2,460 ft (750 m) deep; the volcano lost about 3,770 ft (1,150 m) of elevation from the old peak to the new crater floor.

    2.Eighteen hundred four years—almost to the day—after Pompeii was buried, an even larger volcanic catastrophe occurred half a world away. On Aug. 26–28, 1883, Krakatau, between the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java, erupted, destroying two-thirds of the island and discharging an immense cloud of dust that spread across the Earth, lowering global temperature by as much as 1.2 degrees C the following year.
    Krakatau's explosions also produced forty-meter high tsunamis that hurled ashore pieces of coral weighing 600 tons, and whose residual waves were observed as far away as Cape Horn and England. More than 36,000 people died in the disaster.

    Deadliest Volocanoes
    1. Tambora in Indonesia,1815
    2. Krakatau in Indonesia,1833
    3. Mt.Pelee in Martinique,1902
    4. Ruiz in Colombia,1985
    5. Unzen in Japan,1792
    6. Laki in Iceland,1783
    7. Kelut in Indonesia,1919
    8. Galunggung in Indonesia,1882
    9. Vesuvius in Italy,1631
    10. Vesuvius in Italy,79

  9. 3/8/2013


    1. The large and active Santa María volcano lies in the Western Highlands, close to the city of Quetzaltenango, in Guatemala. Its last eruption occurred in 2006. The volcano lies in the Sierra Madre de Chipas mountains. Most of the volcanoes of Guatemala are a part of this range.

    2. The Phillippine's largest island, Luzon, is home to the Tall Volcano, the Philippine's second most active volcano after the Mayon Volcano.

    3. The most active volcano in Indonesia is Mount Merapi, on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It has erupted regularly since 1548.

    4. Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially-active stratovolcano on the island of Mindanao, west of Davao City, in the Philippines. It is part of the Cordillera Central.

    5. Mauna Loa is the US's largest and most active volcano, and the world's largest and most active volcano. It is on the island of Hawaii, in Hawaii.

  10. Volcanoes Of the World

    1. Mount Pinatubo is an active stratovolcano on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It is located in the Cabusilan Mountains. Before the volcanic activities of 1991, the eruption of Mount Pinatubo was unknown to most people in the Philippines. It gave out a lot of aerosol into the stratosphere, the most since Krakatoa.

    2. Nyamuragira is an active volcano in the Virunga Mountains of DR Congo. It has erupted 40 times since 1885. It is located in the Nord-Kivu Province near lake Kivu. It is very close to Nyiragongo, another active volcano. Together they have caused extensive damage to the city of Goma. It is a shield volcano.

    3. Reventador Volcano is an active stratovolcano in the eastern part of the Andes of Ecuador. It is located in the national park of the same name. Since 1541 it has erupted more than 20 times. It is a stratovolcano. Its largest eruption occurred in 2002. Its name in Spanish means, “ the burster.”

    4. Sangay is an active stratovolcano in central Ecuador. It is the most active volcano in Ecuador. Its last eruption was in 1934 which is still ongoing. It is in the Sangay National Park. It is located in the southern part of the Northern Volcanic Zone of Ecuador.

    5. Tungurahua Volcano is an active stratovolcano in the central part of Ecuador in the Sangay National Park. Its most recent eruption was this year. It is part of the Northern Volcanic Zone. In Quechua, it means, “Throat of Fire.” The first people to climb it were German Volcanologists: Alphons Stübel and Wilhelm Reiss.

    6. Emi Koussi is a high pyroclastic shield volcano that is located at the southern end of the Tibesti Mountains in Chad. It is the highest mountain in the Sahara. It was first climbed in the year 1938. It is Chad’s highest point.

    7. Mount Cameroon is an active volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea. It is an active stratovolcano. It is part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, which includes Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake. Its latest eruption happened in 2012 and is ongoing.

    8. Queen Mary’s Peak is the summit of the island of Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean. There has only been one eruption in recorded history. It is named after Mary of Teck. It has a heart-shaped crater lake. It is on the center of the island.

    9. Haleakalā is a large shield volcano that forms more than 75 percent of the island of Maui. The other part of Maui is formed by the West Maui Mountains. It is located in Haleakala National park in Hawaii. It is a shield volcano. Its name means, “House of the Sun” in the local language.

    10. Surtsey is a volcanic island off the coast of Iceland. It is the southernmost point in Iceland. It was formed by an eruption almost 500 feet under sea level. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was made one in 2008 during the 32nd session.

  11. Pranav NagarajanMarch 8, 2013 at 9:32 PM

    Volcanic Landforms

    1. There are many different types of volcanoes and volcanic landforms. The first type of volcano is a shield volcano. These volcanoes have gentle slopes and an oval shape, such as Kilauea and Mauna Loa. Another type of volcano is a stratovolcano, or composite volcanoes. Steep-sloped and violent, these volcanoes are dangerous because they sleep for a long time before waking up. Examples include Krakatoa and Vesuvius. The third type of volcano are cinder cones, which vary in slope and explosiveness. An example is the Paricutin Volcano in Mexico.

    2. A lava dome is a formation of rock formed by slow-moving magma solidifying over or near the lava vent. The surface of this formation is rough and spiny. Examples of famous lava domes include the one in Mount Saint Helens after the 1980 eruption.

    3. Calderas are large volcanic depressions caused by the collapse of a structure in volcano. They are caused by the emptying of a magma chamber below a structure. A caldera example includes the Crater Lake Caldera in Oregon which is 8 km in diameter and formed 6800 years ago. An island in the middle of the lake formed by a cinder cone is called Wizard Island.

    4. Resurgent domes are caused in calderas, when magma flows back into the magma chamber and uplifts the caldera. Examples of resurgent domes are found in the Yellowstone caldera, which is the third caldera to be formed in that area and covers most of Yellowstone National Park.

    5. Geysers, Fumaroles, and Hot Springs are caused by volcanoes too. Fumaroles are vents at which gases which are heated deep within Earth escape to the surface. They are only visible if the water vapor, which is the most common gas to come out of fumaroles, condenses. Examples of all three are found at Yellowstone National Park, where magma still lies underneath the surface.

    1. Major Volcanoes and Earthquakes in the Ring of Fire:
      1. Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand
      2. Mount Saint Helens, Washington, USA
      3. Mount Pinatubo, Philippines
      4. Mt. Fuji, Japan
      5. Paricutin Volcano, Mexico
      6. Santiago Earthquake, Chile
      7. Sendai Earthquake, Japan

  12. Volcanoes of Indonesia

    1. Toba-Sumatra
    2. Merapi-Java
    3. Mt. Kerinci-Sumatra
    4. Sibayak-Sumatra
    5. Krakatau-Sunda Strait
    6. Tambora-Lesser Sunda Islands
    7. Awu-Sulawesi
    8. Galunggung- Java
    9. Marapi-Sumatra
    10. Kelut-Java


    #1. Santa María Volcano, Guatemala
    Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. Santa María volcano is a typical, moderate-sized (10 km³), basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. In 1902, a catastrophic Plinian eruption produced a crater on the south flank of the volcano, exposing 250 m of interbedded lava flows, laharic material, and pyroclastic deposits.

    #2. Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala
    Pacaya volcano near Guatemala City is one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, and its frequent eruptions are often visible from Guatemala City. Typical activity in recent years includes strombolian activity, lava flow emission and intermittent violent phases of lava fountaining. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera.

    #3. Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
    Volcán Arenal, a beautiful, 1657-m high conical andesitic stratovolcano near Lake Arena, is the youngest and one of the most active stratovolcano in Costa Rica. It is famous for a large explosive eruption in 1968 that killed several people and threw incandescent bombs to 5 km distance from the vent. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain where activity has migrated to the NW over the past 2 million years, from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active simulataneously with Cerro Chato volcano until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago.

    #4. Coatepeque, El Salvador
    Coatepeque volcano is a large 7 x 10 km wide caldera 50 km west of San Salvador city. The caldera is elongated in SE-NW direction, with walls rising up to 800 m above the floor in its southwestern part. An up to 120 m deep and 5 km diameter lake occupies the eastern part of the caldera. Hot springs occur near the lake shores. The caldera formed by the collapse of several overlapping stratovolcanoes east of Santa Ana volcano, and part of Santa Ana itself, during major rhyolitic pumice eruptions between 72,000 and 51,000 years ago. Deposits from these eruptions form a large layer present in most of southwestern El Salvador and parts of Guatemala.

    #5. Cerro Negro, Nicaragua
    Cerro Negro, Central America's youngest volcano was born in April 1850 and is one of the region's most active volcanoes. It has been producing frequent strombolian eruptions, occasional lava fountains and lava flows, and powerful explosive eruptions every few decades. Cerro Negro is the largest, southernmost, and most recent of a group of 4 young cinder cones that formed along a NNW-SSE-trending line in the central Marrabios Range 5 km NW of Las Pilas volcano. The volcano consists of a black ("negro") basaltic cinder cone with associated lava flows, including an aa flow field reaching 4 km to the NE and SW.


    #6. Fuego Volcano, Guatemala
    Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. It typically has strombolian activity and sometimes phases of intense lava fountaining, producing tall ash plumes and dangerous pyroclastic flows. Collapse of the ancestral Meseta volcano about 8,500 years ago produced a massive debris avalanche that traveled about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango, the northern twin volcano of Fuego.

    #7. Ilopango, El Salvador
    Ilopango volcano is a 8x11 km wide caldera at the eastern margin of San Salvador city, El Salvador. It is elongated to the east, has 150-500 m high walls and contains the scenic Lake Ilopango, one of El Salvador's largest. The caldera is the result of at least 4 large plinian eruptions over the past few tens of thousands years. The lastest of these occurred in the 5th centruy AD. A historic eruption in 1879-80 formed Islas Quemadas ("burnt islands"), a group of islands in the center of the lake, corresponding to the summit of a mostly submerged post-caldera lava dome.

    #8. Izalco, El Salvador
    Izalco volcano was born in 1770 and is the youngest volcano in El Slavador. It formed on the southern flank of Santa Ana volcano located 45 km NW of San Salvador city. Frequent strombolian eruptions and sometimes lava flows have built a largely unvegetated cone 650 m high which contains a 250 m wide and 50 m deep summit crater. Volcán Izalco was frequently active between 1770 and 1966, but has been in its longest repose interval of its short history since then. Similarly to Stromboli volcano in Italy, it acquired the nickname of "El Faro", the "Lighthouse of the Pacific", because of its frequent strombolian eruptions that provided a natural night-time beacon for ships. Izalco is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in North and Central America

    #9. San Miguel, El Salvador
    San Miguel volcano (also known locally as Chaparrastique) in eastern El Salvador is a symmetrical stratovolcano and one of the most active volcanoes of the country. It rises majestically from near sea level to 2130 m elevation and forms a prominent land mark. The volcano's summit lacks vegetation due to frequent eruptions, but its flanks are largely covered with coffee plantations. San Miguel has a broad, deep crater complex, which has frequently changed morphology during historic eruptions recorded since the early 16th century.

    #10. Tacaná Volcano, Guatemala
    Tacaná volcano on the Mexican-Guatemalan border is a symmetrical stratovolcano rising 1800 m above its base and forms the NW end of the Central American Volcanic Belt. Tacana consists of overlapping volcanic edifices, reflecting a migration of vents from the NE to the SW over time. The youngest vent is the San Antonio lava dome in a crater on the upper SW flank, which was the site of most recent activity. Historic eruptions of Tacaná were small phreatic explosions in 1855, 1878, 1949–1950 and 1986, from both Tacaná and San Antonio. The eruption in 1950 was the largest and produced pyroclastic flows. Active fumaroles are found at 3600 m altitude and hot springs in various locations at the base of the volcano.